ISS 2017 Program


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PS6.1: Modeling Pressure Injury Conditions Caused by Toilet Seats

Using finite element computer simulations we have studied sitting on multiple toilet seats and have quantified resulting skin, fat and muscle tissue deformations. As expected, tissue deformations are greater on toilets relative to chairs. Moreover, the toilet-seat design, i.e. the support-surface widths and their inclinations strongly affect tissue loads. Computer modeling can effectively rate toilet seat designs by the potential tissue-injury risk, and regardless, toilet sitting time should be minimized for all at-risk populations.


Learning Objectives:

Upon completion of this session, attendees will be able to;



Amit Gefen, PhD
Tel Aviv University
Tel Aviv

Prof. Amit Gefen received the B.Sc. in Mechanical Engineering and M.Sc. and Ph.D. in Biomedical Engineering from Tel Aviv University in 1994, 1997, and 2001, respectively. During 2002-2003 he was a post-doctoral fellow at the University of Pennsylvania. He is currently a Full Professor at the Faculty of Engineering of Tel Aviv University. His research interests are in studying effects of biomechanical factors on cells, tissues and organs, with applications to chronic wounds.

Maayan Lustig
Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Tel Aviv University
Tel Aviv

Kara Kopplin
Belleville, IL
United States



    1. Levy, A., Kopplin, K. & Gefen, A. (2016). Device-related pressure ulcers from a biomechanical perspective. J Tissue Viability.
    2. Levy, A., Kopplin, K. & Gefen, A. (2014). An air-cell-based cushion for pressure ulcer protection remarkably reduces tissue stresses in the seated buttocks with respect to foams: finite element studies. J Tissue Viability. 23(1), 13-23.
    3. Gefen, A., Farid, K.J. & Shaywitz, I. (2013). A review of deep tissue injury development, detection, and prevention: shear savvy. Ostomy Wound Manage. 59(2). 26-35.

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