ISS 2017 Program


Pre-Symposium Workshop dot Symposium Day 1 dot Symposium Day 2 dot Symposium Day 3

SS1.1: Virtual Analysis of the Posture Effect on Skin Integrity

The Finite Element Method was initially developed in the 70’s in the field of civil engineering to compute stresses and strains for the design of buildings. Within the last 40 years the capability and performance of this method are steadily improved due to hardware and software enhancements.

A challenge for the FEM is the modelling of the human body. But within the last years great advancements are made in the field of biomechanics. A known example is the 3D heart project, where companies and clinical partners developed an active model of the human heart. Beside these scientific developments the FEM is more and more used in the development, where products are interacting with the human body. An example is the tool CASIMIR/Automotive used in the automotive industry to evaluate seating comfort. Here a seat design can be combined with different types of manikins in different postures.

Learning Objectives



Alexander Siefert, PhD
Wölfel Engineering GmbH + Co.KG
Höchberg, Bavaria

Alexander Siefert is working at Wölfel since 2003 at leads currently the seating department as an engineering director. He made his PHD at the TU Darmstadt about the topic: ‘Numerical modelling of mechanical properties of the human tissue and its implementation in a whole body model’. He published several papers in the field of human body modelling and made a lot of presentation on international conferences about seating, human modelling and pressure sores.

Bart Van der Heyden, PT


    1. Oomens, C. W., Maenhout, M., Oijen, C. H., Drost, M. R., & Baaijens, F. P. (2003). Finite element modelling of contracting skeletal muscle. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 358(1437), 1453-1460. doi:10.1098/rstb.2003.1345.
    2. Siefert, A., Pankoke, S., & Wölfel, H. (2008). Virtual optimisation of car passenger seats: Simulation of static and dynamic effects on drivers’ seating comfort. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 38(5-6), 410-424. doi:10.1016/j.ergon.2007.08.016.
    3. Loerakker, S. (2011). The relative contributions of muscle deformation and ischaemia to pressure ulcer development. PHD thesis, TU Eindhoven. ISBN 978-90-386-2550-8.

Pre-Symposium Workshop dot Symposium Day 1 dot Symposium Day 2 dot Symposium Day 3


Updated | 01.18.2017      Facebook logo  Twitter
Valid XHTML 1.0 Transitional